downward influence of a leader on his or her followers
importance of lateral and upward influence patterns
ways to increase a leader’s following
elimination of dependency in relationships
There is little research to support one or the other.
Leadership is more valued than management.
Management is more valued than leadership.
The two constructs overlap
By blending individualized consideration with inspirational motivation.
By leading in a more democratic manner than men.
By acting masculine and assertive, and not in feminine ways.
By strongly resisting stereotype threats.
Leader-member exchange theory
Situational leadership theory
Focuses on the behaviors leaders should exhibit to put followers first.
Is unconcerned with the way leaders should treat followers.
Focuses on the need for leaders to perfect themselves before helping others.
Makes the need for task completion necessary before relationships can thrive.
Its specific nature
Assist in relating demographics to leadership
Its straightforward nature
It is only applicable to lower-level managers
High LPC score
Self-monitoring, impression management
Physical attractiveness, height
Desire for power, desire to help others
High value and low value
Distinct and independent
Cause and effect
Negative perceptions toward the organizations
Biased results in favor of situational leadership
Results that are not in favor of situational leadership
Wide range of responses that are hard to validate
Focuses on all levels of an organization from the individual to the wider organization, gathers ethnographic data, and looks at many aspects of cultures.
Starts the evaluation at the assessment phase, gathers formal data, and focuses on the language of the participants.
There are no critical factors. Leaders should be sent to various countries and allowed to learn that way.
Focuses on the organization as a whole rather than the individual, demographic information, and formal data gathering.
They act as a catalyst for change.
They are a common occurrence.
They reinforce patterned behaviors.
They influence a multitude of people.
Leadership as a process
Style approach to leadership
Value out-group member’s opinions.
Focus on the task at hand.
Leave followers to work on their own.
Become strong role models for their followers.
Managerial grid approach
From the perspective of the follower
As a form of coercion
As positional power
As a relational concern for both leaders and followers
Focus of group processes
Leadership as a behavior
Leadership as an act
An ability or skill
A relationship between a leader and a follower
A set of behaviors
A dynamic social process
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